Human genes play a significant role in an individual’s physical appearance. Even many human conditions are composed of different genetic components. Today, scientists are continuously investigating these conditions to solve health problems.
Genetic disorders are diseases caused by mutations or alterations in the DNA in human cells. The modification can occur in different forms such as, by one gene called a monogenic disorder, by chromosomal distraction (modifies the number of chromosomes), multiple genes and environmental elements, and gene mutations.
DNA is a molecule composed of genetic instructions, which are primarily in the cells in the body. The spiral structure in each DNA is called chromosomes. These chromosomes have small parts of DNA called genes. The primary function of these genes is to supply the human body with specific instructions. An average human cell consists of 23 pairs of chromosomes, and each pair comes from each parent.
Furthermore, DNA alterations are the leading cause of many genetic conditions. These conditions may be hereditary since genes are inherited from parents. However, symptoms of a particular genetic disorder may vary, and some may not experience any.
Discovering the human genome means understanding that most conditions contain genetic components. Some cases are related to genetic mutations passed from parents to a child or inborn diseases such as sickle cell anemia. Additionally, genetic disorders are due to modifying a set of genes that are acquired through a person’s lifestyle. This type of mutation is not inherited but due to random causes or environmental factors like cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption.
Here is a list of some genetic and rare conditions. Its purpose is to provide awareness and information.
- Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)- is a neurological disorder that may affect a person’s behavior. It can also affect how they pay attention to a specific task.
- Cystic Fibrosis- is a hereditary disease and it commonly targets the digestive system and lungs. It is also the leading genetic disorder in the United States. Moreover, this condition causes the body to produce sticky and thick mucus that blocks the lungs, leading to respiratory distress and infection. Blockage of the pancreas can also occur, and it inhibits the digestive enzymes from traveling to the intestines.
- Colon Cancer- affects both genders. It is described as a type of cancer that starts in the large intestine, where a malignant tumor can develop.
- Crohn’s disease- is an inflammatory bowel disorder that causes inflammation of the digestive system that can cause diarrhea, abdominal pain, malnutrition, and weight loss.